Gareth Smyth has covered Middle Eastern affairs for 20 years and was chief correspondent for The Financial Times in Iran.

  • Social media augur a bumpy ride and the Middle East is no exception, On: Sun, 24 Dec 2017

  • When Arab, Muslim novelists tackle the migration issue, On: Sun, 17 Dec 2017

  • Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe’s case reflects Iran’s targeting of dual nationals, On: Sun, 26 Nov 2017

  • Russia’s economic stakes in Iran are growing, On: Sun, 12 Nov 2017

  • The Kurds’ double crisis, On: Sun, 05 Nov 2017

  • Tehran continues to pin hopes on Europe, On: Sun, 22 Oct 2017

  • Talabani’s death leaves Kurdish PUK wrestling with leadership vacuum, On: Sun, 08 Oct 2017

  • Effects of Iraqi Kurdistan referendum reverberate in Iran , On: Sun, 01 Oct 2017

  • Shahroudi goes to Iraq with Khamenei’s succession in mind, On: Sun, 24 Sep 2017

  • Yazdi, Iranian foreign minister turned dissident, stood up for his ideals, On: Sun, 17 Sep 2017

  • Tehran eyes diplomatic offensive to ease international pressures, On: Sun, 10 Sep 2017

  • Remembering Nawshirwan Mustafa on the eve of Kurdish referendum , On: Sun, 27 Aug 2017

  • Nikolaos van Dam: Even with an agreement, it may take generations to ‘normalise’ Syria, On: Sun, 27 Aug 2017

  • Kurdish push for independence likely to unleash new cycle of violence in an already volatile region, On: Sun, 06 Aug 2017

  • Dangers in US-Iran relations over nuclear deal, On: Sun, 06 Aug 2017

  • Agreement with Total boosts Iran’s potential, On: Sun, 23 Jul 2017

  • Iran faces worsening drug addiction problem, On: Sun, 09 Jul 2017

  • The common factors of far right and radical Islamist hatred, On: Sun, 02 Jul 2017

  • Election may have lessened Raeisi’s chances to succeed Khamenei , On: Sun, 18 Jun 2017

  • ISIS a new challenge for Iran as ‘caliphate’ crumbles , On: Sun, 18 Jun 2017

  • Tehran expects US engagement but no clear timetable, On: Sun, 04 Jun 2017

  • Despite Iran’s history of election surprises, Rohani could triumph, On: Sun, 14 May 2017

  • In Iran’s election, the battle is between rich and poor, On: Sun, 07 May 2017

  • Little-known Raeisi could give Rohani a run for his money, On: Sun, 30 Apr 2017

  • The dangerous and far-reaching consequences of ambiguity , On: Sun, 30 Apr 2017

  • US president unlikely to abandon ‘worst deal ever’, On: Sun, 30 Apr 2017

  • Iran election may be pointer to race for supreme leader, On: Sun, 23 Apr 2017

  • For Iran’s women, ‘the cat’s out of the bag’, On: Sun, 23 Apr 2017

  • Resilient Rohani defies critics in presidential race, On: Sun, 16 Apr 2017

  • Ahmadinejad tweets but is no Donald Trump, On: Sun, 02 Apr 2017

  • Friday prayers key to Iran’s succession politics, On: Sun, 19 Mar 2017

  • Those fighting terrorism should also define their aims, On: Sun, 19 Mar 2017

  • ‘Principlists’ concentrate attacks on Rohani, On: Sun, 12 Mar 2017

  • Iranians fear their foes are ‘ganging up’ with Trump, On: Sun, 05 Mar 2017

  • The Lebanese have shown a humanity the West could learn from, On: Sun, 26 Feb 2017

  • Shia leadership struggle ahead after Khamenei and Sistani , On: Sun, 26 Feb 2017

  • Iran’s conservatives scramble to find a presidential candidate, On: Sun, 19 Feb 2017

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  • Iran’s judiciary gets dragged into the political dogfight, On: Sun, 29 Jan 2017

  • Social media augur a bumpy ride and the Middle East is no exception

    Social media’s popularity is growing especially fast in the Middle East and Africa, where 58% of the population is expected to be using the internet next year.

    Bumpy ride. A Facebook logo on display in front of an escalator in Dubai. (Reuters)

    2017/12/24 Issue: 137 Page: 21

    Sean Parker, Facebook’s founding president, ex­plained at a conference in Philadelphia how the company set out to create an addiction. Facebook’s first cal­culations on how to suck in users looked at dopamine, the chemical released when users click “like.”

    “It literally changes your rela­tionship with society, with each other,” Parker said. “God only knows what it’s doing to our chil­dren’s brains.”

    Separately, at the Rolling Sun Book Festival in Westport on the Atlantic coast of Ireland, Aine Kerr and Mark Little offered insights on how much and how fast the social media giants were changing the world.

    Kerr previously led global jour­nalism partnerships at Facebook, which involved her persuading traditional media newsrooms to train journalists in using Face­book. If you can’t beat them, join them. As Kerr said, 44% of Americans get their news from Facebook.

    Little, who has been a foreign correspondent for Irish national broadcaster RTE and vice-president of Twitter’s European media partnerships, said a heavy smartphone user checks in 5,000 times a day. The dopamine hit, he half-joked, can bring “misinforma­tion on steroids.”

    If that sounds overly omi­nous, remember the plaudits for Facebook in the “Arab spring”? Remember how, just a few years ago, social media were supposed to herald a new age of citizen journalism?

    In practice, the technology has empowered corporate giants. Billions of people cheerfully sur­render personal data and infor­mation. They leave trails of their online behaviour. The results are analysed and monetised, enabling Facebook and Google, which owns YouTube, to take half of world­wide online advertising revenue.

    It’s made them rich. Facebook recently announced quarterly prof­its of $4.7 billion, up 79% year-on-year. Overall, tech giants Apple, Google’s parent Alphabet, Face­book, Amazon and Microsoft have $560.1 billion in cash reserves.

    Social media do more than just empower salesmen. They energise political manipulators. This has Western countries worried, espe­cially about Russia. In November, British Prime Minister Theresa May accused Moscow of trying to “weaponise information.”

    Researchers at Edinburgh University said Russia’s Internet Research Agency (IRA) has run 419 Twitter accounts for British poli­tics. Many encouraged Brexit.

    IRA is based in St Petersburg and employs hundreds of trolls. The aim seems to be fostering divisions. One IRA Twitter ac­count posted a picture showing a Muslim woman ignoring victims of the March attacks on Westmin­ster Bridge with a caption saying she revealed sympathy for the Islamic State (ISIS). It was widely circulated on social media and published in traditional outlets, although the photographer later explained the woman was as terri­fied as everyone else.

    Twitter told a British parlia­mentary committee it suspended 2,752 accounts tweeting on the US presidential election controlled from Russia. A US congressional investigation said that from June 2015-August 2017, 126 million Americans probably saw material from Facebook accounts associ­ated with Russia’s IRA.

    Even as politicians and policy advisers in Britain and the United States wake up to social media’s immense influence, Facebook’s active users worldwide increased from 360 million in 2009 to 2.1 billion today.

    Social media’s popularity is growing especially fast in the Mid­dle East and Africa, where 58% of the population is expected to be using the internet next year, up from 41.9% in 2013. The United Arab Emirates has 8.7 million Facebook users, Saudi Arabia 17 million and Egypt 35 million. Of 800 million Instagram users worldwide, 63 million are in the Middle East.

    That’s a lot of dopamine. Jona­than Labin, Facebook’s Middle East managing director, recently called Facebook “one of the best lead generation platforms in the region.” In plain words, that means it’s one of the best ways to influence people’s behaviour.

    As elsewhere, that can be in shopping or politics. The Middle East has its share of tech business conferences, especially those that extol start-ups. It also has its share of political extremists.

    Its leaders have offered piece­meal responses to the great poten­tial — and peril — of social media. At a recent meeting of the UAE Federal National Council, Saeed al-Remeithi of Abu Dhabi urged Awqaf, the Authority of Islamic Af­fairs and Endowments, to counter extremists active on social media.

    Northwestern University in Qatar’s fifth annual “Media Use in the Middle East” survey, pub­lished in September, said Arabs were more likely than Americans to get news from social media. It also said that younger Arabs were more likely to trust social media than their elders.

    Should the Arab League emu­late the European Union and at least investigate? This is a bumpy ride and it’s only just beginning. Should its only fuel be dopamine?

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