Can Turkey overcome its legacy of military and strategic failings?

By all accounts, Turkey’s attempts to gain leverage in the region seem to have backfired catastrophically.

Litany of failures. A Turkish soldier stands on the hill overlooking damaged buildings near the border with Iraq. (AFP)


2017/10/22 Issue: 128 Page: 14


The Arab Weekly
Stephen Starr



Despite a series of dis­astrous attempts to further its influence in the region, Turkey has, it seems, landed on its feet.

The unrest that rocked the Middle East since 2011 presented Turkey with an unprecedented opportunity to establish itself as the single regional influencer, an opening it managed to completely foul up.

It stood by as Russian war­planes entered the Syria conflict, allowing for the subsequent re­surgence of the Assad regime and its proxies. In Egypt, it backed Muhammad Morsi, who, having failed to establish his own form of one-man rule, languishes in prison. More recently, it chose to spring to the defence of Qatar, the underdog in the dispute with Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Egypt.

When it — rightly or wrongly — insisted Kurds in northern Syria not be allowed to govern territo­ries with large Kurdish popula­tions there, Ankara sacrificed a nascent peace process with the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) that had been attempting to end an intractable 40-year-old conflict. This unleashed a series of bomb attacks across Turkey in 2015 that threatened to unravel the fabric of Turkish-Kurdish social relations.

In 2012, it miscalculated utterly by backing Syrian rebel groups that soon morphed into jihadists, leaving Ankara without a legiti­mate proxy in the Syrian war and, for several years, a terrorist state on its lengthy southern border.

It chose to shoot down a Rus­sian jet in November 2015, which resulted in crippling major sec­tors of its own economy when Russia reacted by refusing to buy Turkish agricultural products and banned its tourists from holiday­ing in Turkey.

“Turkey is now in a more vul­nerable position diplomatically and is viewed with increasing suspicion by its traditional allies,” wrote Simon A. Waldman, a co-author of “The New Turkey and Its Discontents.” “Turkey chose to become an actor in the worst civil war the Middle East [Syria] has ever seen and the decision was a bad one.”

By all accounts, Turkey’s at­tempts to gain leverage in the region seem to have backfired catastrophically.

However, while events in Kirkuk have been hailed as a major bump for Iranian influence in Iraq, Ankara stands to gain even more by the pushing back of Kurdish territorial claims. The West’s refusal to back the Kurds as Iraqi troops took over Kirkuk places Ankara on the side of the powerful: Iran, Baghdad and, crucially, Washington. Turkey is deeply worried by any event that may lead to the establishment of an official Kurdish state in north­ern Iraq. With Western blessing for the Kurdish independence effort officially not forthcoming, Ankara’s fears may not come true.

Considering the litany of fail­ures, does this matter now? Is it too late for Turkey’s aspirations to be the major regional force?

The Kurds’ ill-fortune in Iraqi Kurdistan certainly has Turkey well positioned. It has been forcefully beating a drum against Kurdish autonomy for several years and, when Erbil made its play vis-à-vis its referendum, the major regional and international powers chose not to champion its cause. Turkey was elated but it should be wary that if it finds itself on the same side as Wash­ington, the European Union and regional heavyweights, it’s not because they agree with Turkey but despite of that.

Whether Turkey’s catastrophic regional policies were the work of a perverse bout of self-sabotage or simply an inability to foresee where events were headed, it now seems to have finally seen the light. As it became clearer the As­sad regime would not be toppled, Ankara enacted a major change of course by warming up to Iran and Russia, its erstwhile opponents in the Syrian war.

However, the underlying fail­ings that coloured its calamitous military and strategic planning for the past decade remain. Tur­key must change that if it is not to suffer further embarrassment.


Stephen Starr is an Irish journalist who lived in Syria from 2007 to 2012. He is the author of Revolt in Syria: Eye-Witness to the Uprising (Oxford University Press: 2012).


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