Lebanon’s military court accused of intimidating activists

Tribunal has jurisdiction over civilians for any interaction with security services or their employ­ees.

A 2015 file picture shows Lebanese policemen speaking with an anti-government activist (L) during a protest against Environment Minister Mohammad Machnouk in Beirut. (AP)


2017/02/12 Issue: 93 Page: 11


The Arab Weekly
Hashem Osseiran



Beirut - Recent military court pro­ceedings against 14 Leba­nese activists who had taken part in anti-govern­ment demonstrations to denounce the garbage crisis in 2015 raised concerns over the tribunal’s role in restricting freedom of ex­pression and assembly among op­position groups.

The tribunal has jurisdiction over civilians for any interaction with security services or their employ­ees. Although there is no public information about the number of civilians tried each year, the Union for Protection of Juveniles in Leba­non said 355 minors stood before the tribunal in 2016.

The demonstrators, who have been charged with protesting, forming riot groups, stoning secu­rity forces, treating security per­sonnel harshly and harming the reputation of military institutions are not the the first political activ­ists to be tried by the military court. Annual human rights reports pub­lished by Alef, a local watchdog organisation, in 1997 and 2002, list cases in which protesters have been tried by the tribunal.

“Monday’s (January 30th) hear­ing is part of a longer and ongoing trend that Alef has been observ­ing, one that involves the use of the military tribunal to limit freedom of expression and assembly,” George Ghali, programmes manager at Alef, said in a phone interview.

Although a former Justice min­ister and a number of non-gov­ernmental organisations have come out in favour of limiting the military court’s mandate and draft legislation has been crafted to do so, the tribunal enjoys broad and sometimes unclear jurisdiction.

Ghali said this was because the status quo is beneficial to the execu­tive body, which enjoys strong and ambiguous links with the tribunal and can use the courts as a tool against opposition groups. These ties, he said, serve as an “autocratic parenthesis within the Lebanese democratic system”.

Lama Fakih, the deputy director of the Human Right Watch’s Middle East and North Africa division, ex­pressed concern over trying activ­ists in a court ostensibly closed to the public.

“When you have public monitor­ing of courts, when there is trans­parency, when the public knows what is happening in court, it does affect the way that proceedings move forward. That is why it is so important for civilians to be tried… before the public,” she said in a tel­ephone interview.

Fakih said she was granted access to the courtroom for the first time on January 30th. “The defendants and their counsel felt that the treat­ment that they received before the court was, as one protester told me, 180 degrees different after there was independent monitoring,” she said.

Specifically, defence counsel was not interrupted and was given the chance to deliver a defence, which had not always been the custom in previous hearings, she said.

The most blatant indictment of the tribunal came from Layal Siblani, a 20-year-old Lebanese law student and one of the defendants charged with taking part in a “riot gang” during an October 8th, 2015, protest. “The court proceedings against us are being used as a tool for intimidation and instilling fear,” she said in a Skype interview the day after the hearing.

Siblani recalled the one night she was imprisoned in a tight, dark and drenched detention room with 12 other female detainees following her arrest during the demonstra­tion. That along with the fraught and intimidating experience she has had with the military court over the past year-and-a-half led her to concede that the alleged strategy of intimidation worked.

“I will never stand on the front lines of protests ever again. I can­not afford to do that anymore,” she said, noting that she will seek out activism that does not involve pub­lic demonstrations.

Concerns over the jurisdic­tion and practices of the military court were documented in a Hu­man Rights Watch (HRW) report published before the January 30th hearing.

The report cited allegations that the Ministry of Defence or the Leb­anese Army used overbroad juris­diction of the military courts as “a tool for intimidation or retaliation against political speech or activ­ism”.

The Ministry of Defence, in a let­ter to HRW, responded that “the military judiciary in all of its stat­utes respects all national and in­ternational rules of law, especially what concerns respect for human rights”.

The statement came across as contradictory when, according to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which Lebanon ratified in 1972, governments are prohibited from using military courts to try civilians when civilian courts still function.

Previous Lebanese Army re­sponses to HRW accused the group of “exaggerating facts on the basis of false or inaccurate statements” while denying accusations of mis­conduct detailed in the report.


Hashem Osseiran is a reporter based in Beirut.


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