Israel, Hezbollah square off over eastern Med gas dispute

If Israel’s parliament annexes the disputed zone, there could be a military reaction from Hezbollah.

A private security boat (L) circles near a tanker carrying liquefied natural gas in the eastern Mediterranean, some 10km from the Israeli city of Hadera. (Reuters)


2017/04/02 Issue: 100 Page: 14


The Arab Weekly
Nicholas Blanford



Beirut - Israel’s unilateral move to es­tablish sovereignty over a dis­puted maritime zone claimed by Lebanon in the eastern Mediterranean, which is be­lieved to be rich in oil and gas, is adding tensions to a region fearful of a new war between these long-time protagonists.

Nabih Berri, Lebanon’s parlia­mentary speaker and a staunch supporter of the politically trou­bled country’s bid to develop its po­tential offshore oil and gas wealth and rescue its tottering economy, declared that Israel’s decision was “tantamount to a war”.

The dispute between Israel and Lebanon has been going on for years but the Israeli government’s plans to propose legislation that could effectively annex the con­tested maritime sector would fur­ther agitate the relationship.

Berri, a Shia ally of Hezbollah, which Israel considers an implac­able enemy, warned that such a move would open “many danger­ous possibilities”.

Lebanon has brought a formal complaint over Israel’s plan to the United Nations but the Iranian-backed Hezbollah, which has re­peatedly warned Israel to steer clear of the disputed maritime zone, has remained silent.

Hezbollah is in possession of a little-publicised amphibious war­fare unit that analysts say could be used in the Mediterranean if war with the Jewish state were to break out. The prospect is causing consid­erable alarm.

In January, Lebanon opened five offshore blocks to bidding in its first round of licensing after a three-year delay. Three of the blocks are with­in the disputed zone, which forms an 854-sq.km triangle.

This action seems to have pro­voked Israel, prompting a bill in parliament claiming sovereignty over the area.

How seriously the Israelis are considering the annexation of the disputed zone is unclear. The bill may be no more than a knee-jerk response to Lebanon’s decision to open its offshore blocks for inter­national oil companies to bid on. These firms are already spooked by the simmering tension between Lebanon and Israel, as well as the wider dimensions of the wars in Syria and Iraq.

However, if Israel’s parliament annexes the disputed zone, there could be a military reaction from Hezbollah, which is already heavily engaged in the Syrian conflict with its mentor Iran. Israel is threat­ened by recent developments in Syria, where Hezbollah has begun encroaching on areas of the Golan Heights that overlook northern parts of the Jewish state.

Given Hezbollah’s military com­mitments in the region, a maritime war with Israel is probably not on its leaders’ agenda but as a self-de­clared defender of Lebanese sover­eignty against Israeli aggression, it would be difficult for Hezbollah to ignore the Jewish state’s seizure of territory it claims, especially when the disputed zone contains top prospects for oil and gas explora­tion.

Hezbollah’s marine unit dates to the 1990s and has personnel trained at Iran’s amphibious war­fare school in Bandar Abbas, the Islamic Republic’s naval headquar­ters. The unit monitors Lebanon’s coastline and has offensive capa­bilities that include seaborne inser­tions on Israeli beaches or sabotage operations in Israeli ports.

It is also believed to possess vari­ous vessels, such as Zodiac rigid inflatable boats, semi-submersible fast-attack craft and swimmer-dispersal vessels designed to carry several frogmen under water.

Hezbollah also possesses Nour anti-ship missiles, an Iranian re­verse-engineered version of the Chinese C-802 that was used to dis­able an Israeli corvette in the 2006 war.

Some are concerned that the or­ganisation has also acquired Rus­sian Yakhont anti-ship cruise mis­siles, which have a range of 300km and could be used to impose a sea blockade on Israel. Such missiles could be used to target Israel’s off­shore gas platforms around the Leviathan field, Israel’s main gas-producing unit.

Russia is believed to have sup­plied an unknown number of these advanced weapons to the regime of Syrian President Bashar Assad, Hezbollah’s ally. Hezbollah’s de­velopment of armed drones opens the possibility that Israeli platforms could be attacked from that quarter.

After decades of war, Israel takes threats from Hezbollah extremely seriously, particularly given the vulnerability of oil and gas rigs.

In addition to unmanned sea ves­sels and anti-missile systems to protect its rigs and shipping sup­plies, the Israeli Navy employs an array of above-water and underwa­ter sensors.

The US weekly military journal Defense News reported that the threat posed by Hezbollah in the Mediterranean has led Israel to double the number of Iron Dome anti-missile systems fitted onto four new German-built corvettes set to enter service in 2019.

Israel and Hezbollah are already at daggers drawn over the Golan Heights as well as over Iran and Syria’s transfer of advanced weap­ons into Lebanon. Concerns that the two could soon come to blows after a decade of relative calm that followed their 34-day war in 2006 are rising.

The growing tensions over the fate of eastern Mediterranean ener­gy resources pose an increased risk of conflict. The United Nations and the United States should intervene to soothe the tension.


Nicholas Blanford is the author of Warriors of God: Inside Hezbollah’s Thirty-Year Struggle Against Israel (Random House 2011). He lives in Beirut.


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