Army of bots power anti-Muslim activists

In a sampling of anti-Muslim Twitter accounts in Britain and the United States, there was a 117% growth in followers from March through November.

2017/12/24 Issue: 137 Page: 21

The Arab Weekly
Tom Regan

When is a viru­lent, hateful, anti-Muslim activist not a virulent, hateful, anti- Muslim activ­ist? When the virulent, hateful, anti-Muslim activist is a bot — a computer programme designed to retweet messages from virulent, hateful, anti-Muslim activists.

Not that there is much differ­ence as the message is the same. In fact, it’s exactly the same. It’s a sort of a sleight of hand designed to trick people into believing that this virulent, hateful, anti-Muslim activist has many more followers (or believers) than he or she does in reality, thus encouraging real people to accept the message.

Bots that retweet these bigoted messages are not to be ignored. They have become a real source of hatred and anti-Islamic rhetoric that Islamophobic activists are in­creasingly using to woo the public to support their message.

Anti-Islamic campaigners such as Americans Pamela Geller and Stephen Bannon or Brits Tommy Robinson and Jayda Fransen use the internet and social media to amplify their hate-filled messages. When those messages are retweet­ed by powerful people, such as US President Donald Trump as hap­pened recently, it increases their ability to influence public opinion.

Geller and Fransen count on people’s willingness to accept whatever they see on Twitter or on the internet at face value. This allows them to manipulate stories, images or videos to paint Mus­lims as anti-Western and violent. Again, we must point to Trump as the most recent example. Trump retweeted three videos previously posted by Fransen. One proved to be completely wrong and the other two lacked context and meaning, allowing Fransen — and Trump — to use them as anti- Islamic propaganda.

There are also so-called news websites such as Bannon’s Breit­bart, WorldNetDaily and countless others promoting every anti- Islamic story they can get their hands on. Again, they often lack context or are fake news invented to stir up hatred against Muslims.

This is not a small problem. A recent report by the British anti-racist organisation HOPE not Hate said that, in a sampling of anti- Muslim Twitter accounts in Britain and the United States, there was a 117% growth in followers from March through November. It also reported that its researchers had found about 102 bots that were automatically retweeting Geller.

Each bot is given a fake identity to make it seem like a real person is retweeting Geller’s message. The idea is to trick legitimate Twitter account holders into thinking Geller, Fransen or other bigots enjoy enormous support among the general public when in fact they don’t.

Bots are also extensively used by Russian provocateurs who seek to drive anti-Islamic feelings in the West as both a way to increase tensions and undermine democ­racy.

So how do you spot when a mes­sage is coming from a real human as opposed to a bot? Bots tend to express exactly the same message with exactly the same links, at ex­actly the same time. Programmes such as Botometer, designed by Northeastern University and Indiana University in the United States, use an algorithm based on more than 1,000 factors that de­termine a score that tells whether the message is real or from a bot.

It is not perfect, and the devel­opers constantly work to improve it but, in a sense, it follows the familiar story of hackers always one step ahead of those trying to track them down.

There are also tricks to deter­mine whether a Twitter account is a bot. If suspicious, check the Twitter account’s profile page to see when it was created and how often it posts tweets. If the account is posting more than 100 times a day only a few days after it was created, there is reason for caution. (Some Kremlin-based ac­counts have been known to tweet 750 times a day.) These accounts will often have very few, if any, original posts but many retweets and likes. There is very little infor­mation about the account’s owner.

Yet these rules only work for people who want to learn the truth. Sadly, Islamophobes such as Geller and Fransen aren’t inter­ested in people who want to know the truth. They are basically inter­ested in sheep who can be easily convinced. These days there tend to be an increasing number of sheep on Twitter and the internet rather than truth seekers.

Tom Regan, a columnist at, previously worked for the Christian Science Monitor, National Public Radio, the Boston Globe and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. He is the former executive director of the Online News Association and was a Nieman Fellow at Harvard in 1992.

As Printed
Editors' Picks

The Arab Weekly Newspaper reaches Western & Arabic audience that are influential as well as being affluent.

From Europe to the Middle East,and North America, The Arab Weekly talks to opinion formers and influential figures, providing insight and comment on national, international and regional news through the focus of Arabic countries and community.

Published by Al Arab Publishing House

Publisher and Group Executive Editor: Haitham El-Zobaidi, PhD

Editor-in-Chief: Oussama Romdhani

Managing Editor: Iman Zayat

Deputy Managing Editor and Online Editor: Mamoon Alabbasi

Senior Editor: John Hendel

Chief Copy Editor: Richard Pretorius

Copy Editor: Stephen Quillen

Analysis Section Editor: Ed Blanche

East/West Section Editor: Mark Habeeb

Gulf Section Editor: Mohammed Alkhereiji

Society and Travel Sections Editor: Samar Kadi

Syria and Lebanon Sections Editor: Simon Speakman Cordall

Contributing Editor: Rashmee Roshan Lall

Senior Correspondents: Mahmud el-Shafey (London) & Lamine Ghanmi (Tunis)

Regular Columnists

Claude Salhani

Yavuz Baydar


Saad Guerraoui (Casablanca)

Dunia El-Zobaidi (London)

Roua Khlifi (Tunis)

Thomas Seibert (Washington)

Chief Designer: Marwen Hmedi


Ibrahim Ben Bechir

Hanen Jebali

Published by Al Arab Publishing House

Contact editor

Subscription & Advertising:

Tel 020 3667 7249

Mohamed Al Mufti

Marketing & Advertising Manager

Tel (Main) +44 20 6702 3999

Direct: +44 20 8742 9262

Al Arab Publishing House

Kensington Centre

177-179 Hammersmith Road

London W6 8BS , UK

Tel: (+44) 20 7602 3999

Fax: (+44) 20 7602 8778

Follow Us
© The Arab Weekly, All rights reserved